MNRE allows no capping on DC capacity enabling

ADVISORY/ CLARIFICATION
Sub: Advisory / Clarification w.r.t. D.C. Capacity of Solar PV Power Plants

MNRE has received representations from various Solar Developers/ Solar Developer Associations that recently few States have raised questions and concerns around globally adopted practice of installing additional DC capacity, over and above the nameplate / contracted AC capacity, with the objective of meeting the committed Capacity Utilisation Factor (CUF) in Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) / Power Supply Agreements (PSAs).

(2). It has further been stated that the State Governments feel that installation of such additional capacity serves as a medium for additional revenue generation for the developers and that such additional DC capacity cannot be allowed.

The issue has been examined in the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE), is noted that:

As per the present bidding practice, the procurer, whether State Government Agencies/ DISCOMS or Central Government entities like SECl/ NTPC, invite bids from solar power developers for setting up solar PV power plant of a certain capacity (MW). The capacity won by the successful bidder (solar PV power developer), on signing of Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) becomes the “Contracted Capacity”, which is the capacity (MW) in AC terms, allocated for supply by that bidder.

Along with ‘Contracted Capacity’, the PPA also provides for a range of energy supply based on Capacity Utilisation Factor (CUF). While the procurer is not obligated to buy energy beyond this range, the developer is liable for penal charges for supply of energy less than the minimum committed energy or minimum committed Capacity Utilisation Factor (CUF).

Thus, the PPAs define the relationship between the Solar Developers and the procurer in terms of AC capacity, and range of energy supply based on CUF, with procurement obligation within this range.

The requirement of designing and installation of additional DC panels may emanate from the contractual need to supply the committed energy and does not cast any obligation on the procurer to buy generation in excess of the contracted energy range.

The procurer, without getting into the design and installation of solar capacity on the DC side, should only ensure that the AC capacity of the solar PV power plant set up by the developer corresponds with the contracted AC capacity and that, at no point, the power (MW) scheduled from the solar PV power plant, is in excess of the contracted AC capacity.

Accordingly, all concerned are hereby advised that:

As long as the solar PV power plant is in accordance with the contracted AC capacity and meets the range of energy supply based on Capacity Utilisation Factor (CUF) requirements, the design and installation of solar capacity on the DC side should be left to the generator / developer.

Even if the installed DC capacity (MWp) [expressed as the sum of the nominal DC rating (Wp) of all the individual solar PV modules installed] in a solar PV power plant, is in excess of the value of the contracted AC capacity (MW), it is not violation of PPA or PSA, as long as the AC capacity of the solar PV power plant set up by the developer corresponds with the contracted AC capacity and that, at no point, the power (MW) scheduled from the solar PV power plant is in excess of the contracted AC capacity, unless there is any specific clause in the PPA restricting such D.C. capacity.

The contracting party is not obliged to buy any power in excess of the contracted quantum. There is provision of penalty in case the supply falls short of the contracted quantity.

As per law, the setting up of generation capacity is an unlicensed activity and therefore any person is entitled to set up any capacity which he desires to set up, and sell power to any entity which may want to buy it.

This issues with the approval of Hon’ble Minister (Power & NRE).

Posted in DISCOM, India, Solar PV | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

CEEW – Demystifying India’s rooftop solar policies – A state-level analysis Issue Brief | November 2019


The difference between net metering and gross metering
In the net metering mechanism, the electricity generated by the RTS system is consumed by the user and any excess electricity is injected into the grid. In case the consumer requires more power than what
is produced by the RTS system, they can import the balance from the grid. At the end of the settlement period, the consumer is only charged for the ‘net’ energy utilised – the difference between the energy produced through the RTS system and the energy consumed over
the billing period. A bi-directional meter is used to measure the net electricity consumption of the system.
In case of gross metering, the total electricity generated by the solar system is injected into the grid, and the consumer imports electricity from the grid for consumption. At the end of the settlement period, the consumer is compensated for the electricity exported to the grid at the Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) rate determined by the State Electricity Regulatory Commission.

Glossary

  • Sanctioned load/contracted load – Sanctioned load is the maximum demand which is to be supplied by the discom to the consumer as indicated in the agreement between them. It is denoted in kW, kVA, or HP.
  • Distribution transformer (DT) capacity – A distribution transformer is a step-down transformer which is used for electric power distribution. DT capacity is the maximum load that can be put on a transformer within voltage limits by the electricity-generating consumers.
  • Surplus generation – It is the difference in electric power exported from the RTS plant and imported from the grid. It is denoted in kW, kVA, or HP.
  • Cap on export with respect to consumption – It is the limitation put on the export of electricity to the transformer with respect to the consumer’s total consumption.
  • Billing period – The time period for which regular electricity bills are prepared for the consumers by the discom.
  • Settlement period – The time period within which consumers should be compensated for the surplus energy injected into the grid if it has not yet been settled in the billing period.
  • Range allowed – This is the approved minimum and maximum capacity of the rooftop solar system which can be installed by an eligible consumer.
  • Average power purchase cost (APPC) rate – The weighted average pooled price at which the discom purchased electricity from its energy suppliers, except those based on renewable sources, including its self-electricity generation cost in the previous year.
  • Feed-in tariff (FiT) – The payment made in proportion to the power generated to consumers who generated electricity from renewable sources and provided it to the grid.
  • Group-net metering – An arrangement whereby the surplus energy which is generated from a renewable source and fed into the grid through net metering is adjusted within the same discom’s area of supply in more than one electricity service connection(s) of the same consumer.
  • Virtual-net metering – An arrangement in which the entire energy which is generated from a renewable source is exported to the grid through a net meter or gross meter, and the exported energy is adjusted within the same discom’s area of supply in more than one electricity service connection(s) of the participating consumer.
Posted in Cross Subsidy Surcharge, DISCOM, Grid Connected, MSEDCL, Net Metering, PV, Renewables, Rooftop, Solar, Transmission Charges | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission Draft Regulations – Oct 2019

Salient features of Draft MERC Rooftop RE Regulations 2019

  •   Banked energy – excess than consumed in same TOD slot wherever applicable
  •   1 MW capacity limit – but not for net billing
  •   Can be owned by consumer, third party or discom
  •   Generic tariff – RE tariff
  •   Net billing introduced
  •   Net metering only to residential consumers – all others under net billing
  •   Limit of 40% of DTR for both types – discom can allow higher
  •   Limited by CD or SL – 100%
  •   With or without battery
  •   BTM system can be installed only with prior intimation to discom – format provided
  •   BTM systems can have additional fixed / demand / any other charges if discom proposes andMERC accepts
  •   BTM systems without prior intimation will be charged at twice these rates
  •   Generation meter to be procured by consumer at his own cost – maintained by discom
  •   Check meter for > 20 kW systems
  •   Check meter for generation meter under net billing arrangement shall be by discom
  •   Both agreements annexed – can be modified by discom in line with regulations – 20 yearsNet Metering:
  •   Under net metering only 300 units per month can be used to settle or carry forward – excess generated units than 300 units shall be paid for by discom at generic tariff as per RE tariff regulation
  •   Excess at the end of year – also at generic tariff of RE for that year
  •   Exempted from wheeling, banking, CSS, transmission charges and surchargesNet billing:
  •   Can be connected on consumer side or discom side of the meter
  •   Entire energy to be sold to discom
  •   Consumer has to procure net meter if connection is on consumer side
  •   Tariff in agreement (for the year when system commissioned) constant for 20 years
  •   Monthly bill to consumer after deducting total generation multiplied by tariff as per PPA
  •   Generic tariff for RTPV will be with assumptions – 400 Lakh per MW capital cost, 19% CUFand 5% degradation per year – al other financial parameters shall be as per earlier years tariff calculations
  • By Arvind Karandikar

Click Below for the full draft

page1image15518336
Posted in Commercial, DISCOM, Grid Connected, Industrial, MSEDCL, PV, Renewables, Residential, Rooftop, Solar | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

FLOATING SOLAR HANDBOOK FOR PRACTITIONERS – 2019, Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS) at the National University of Singapore (NUS)

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 

Site identification 1

Energy yield analysis 3
Engineering design 3
Financial and legal considerations 3 Environmental and social considerations Procurement and construction 4

Testing and commissioning Operations and maintenance Conclusions and next steps

  1. 1  INTRODUCTION 11
    1. 1.1  Why is this handbook needed? 11
    2. 1.2  Market trends for floating solar 11
    3. 1.3  Key phases of a floating solar project
  2. 2  SITE IDENTIFICATION 17

2.1 Introduction 17

  1. 2.2  Solar irradiance and climate conditions 18
  2. 2.3  Bathymetry and water body characteristics 19
  3. 2.4  Soil investigations and water analysis 21
  4. 2.5  Shading, soiling, and environmental considerations 22
  5. 2.6  Accessibility, grid infrastructure, and power availability 22
  6. 2.7  Other site conditions 23
  7. 2.8  Summary for selecting a water body 23

3 ENERGY YIELD ANALYSIS 27

  1. 3.1  Introduction 27
  2. 3.2  Solar resource and irradiance in the plane of solar modules 27
  3. 3.3  Shading losses 28
  4. 3.4  Soiling 29
  5. 3.5  Temperature-dependent losses 29
  6. 3.6  Water surface albedo 30
  7. 3.7  Mismatch losses 30
  8. 3.8  Cabling losses 32
  9. 3.9  Efficiency losses of the inverter 32
  10. 3.10  Long-term degradation rates 32

CONTENTS • iii

iv •

FLOATING SOLAR HANDBOOK FOR PRACTITIONERS

  1. 4  ENGINEERING DESIGN 35
    1. 4.1  Introduction 35
    2. 4.2  Floating structures and platforms 35
    3. 4.3  Anchoring and mooring systems 39
    4. 4.4  PV modules 45
    5. 4.5  Cable management on water 49
    6. 4.6  Electrical safety 49
    7. 4.7  Checklists for plant design 53
  2. 5  FINANCIAL AND LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS 57
    1. 5.1  Overview 57
    2. 5.2  Risk analysis 57
    3. 5.3  Economic and financial analysis 61
    4. 5.4  Licenses, permits, and authorizations 62
    5. 5.5  Country case studies 64
    6. 5.6  Conclusion 68
  3. 6  ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS 73
    1. 6.1  Overview, scope, and methodology 73
    2. 6.2  Managing effects specific to floating solar photovoltaic systems 74
    3. 6.3  Permitting, mitigation measures, performance indicators, and monitoring 86
  4. 7  PROCUREMENT AND CONSTRUCTION 93 7.1 Overview 93
    1. 7.2  Managing procurement activities 93
    2. 7.3  Managing construction activities 95
    3. 7.4  Checklist for procurement and construction 102
  5. 8  FIELD TESTING AND COMMISSIONING 105
    1. 8.1  Overview 105
    2. 8.2  Solar PV modules and inverters 105
    3. 8.3  Floats and anchoring 105
    4. 8.4  Safety labelling 106
    5. 8.5  Surge/lightning protection 106
    6. 8.6  DC electrical system 107
    7. 8.7  AC electrical system 108
    8. 8.8  Acceptance tests 109
  6. 9  OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE 113
    1. 9.1  Overview 113
    2. 9.2  O&M approach and activities 113
    3. 9.3  Warranties and performance guarantees 129
    4. 9.4  Operations and maintenance checklist 131

ANNEXES 133

  1. Floating PV module failure modes and testing recommendations 133
  2. Costs of floating solar 139
  3. Nonexhaustive list of FPV system suppliers as of December 2018 143

Posted in Crystalline, PV, Renewables, Solar | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

MNRE clarifies in respect of domestically manufactured solar PV cells

Press Information Bureau
Government of India

**** 

MNRE clarifies in respect of domestically manufactured solar PV cells

Decision expected to give boost to domestic manufacturing of solar cells in India

New Delhi, 21st October, 2019

In a major decision that is likely to give further boost to domestic manufacturing of solar cells in India, MNRE has issued a clarification in respect of domestically manufactured solar PV cell today.

It may be noted that a number of flagship programmes of MNRE such as KUSUM, have provisions for mandatory use of domestically manufactured solar PV cells. However it was seen that some manufacturers have been importing semi –processed solar PV cells (generally called blue wafer) and making final Solar PV cells with little value addition in India.

The Ministry has clarified that if diffused silicon wafer (generally called ‘Blue Wafer’) is imported and the same is used as raw material for the manufacture of solar PV cells in India, such solar PV cells shall not qualify as domestically manufactured solar PV cells, for the purpose of MNRE’s Schemes / Programmes. A solar PV cell shall be considered to be domestically manufactured only if the same has been manufactured in India, using undiffused silicon wafer (generally called ‘Black Wafer’).

It is expected that this decision will help in establishing a strong solar manufacturing base in India.

The order issued by MNRE in this regard is as below –

This is in reference to the schemes/ programmes being implemented by the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, wherein it is mandatory to use domestically manufactured solar PV cells and domestically manufactured solar PV modules, and also in reference to the Manufacturing-Linked-PPA initiative by Solar Energy Corporation of India Ltd (SECI).

  1. A solar PV cell shall be considered to be domestically manufactured only if the same has been manufactured in India, using undiffused silicon wafer (generally called ‘Black Wafer’), classifiable under Customs Tariff Head 3818 and all steps / processes required for manufacturing solar PV cell from the undiffused silicon wafer have been carried out in India.
  2. If diffused silicon wafer (generally called ‘Blue Wafer’) is imported and the same is used as raw material for the manufacture of solar PV cells in India, such solar PV cells shall not qualify as domestically manufactured solar PV cells, for the purpose of MNRE’s Schemes / Programmes mandating use of domestically manufactured solar PV cells.
  3. The solar PV cell manufacturing facility required to be set-up under SECI’s Manufacturing-Linked-PPA initiative should manufacture solar PV cells from undiffused wafers, as explained above.
  4. This issues with the approval of Secretary, MNRE.”

****

RCJ/MS

Posted in Cells & Modules, MNRE, Policy, Renewables, Solar Policy, Solar PV, Subsidy, tax exemption | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Renewables in Ukraine – July 2019

Renewables-in-Ukraine-Report-2019-en

Ukraine’s Renewables Investment Boom

The Ukrainian government has committed to increase renewables from around 4 per cent of the energy mix today, to 25 per cent by 2035.

While hydropower dominates the country’s renewable capacity, averaging 4.6GWp over the last decade, installed wind, solar and bio energy capacity increased by 54 per cent to 2.1GWp in 2018 alone, with a further 4.6GWp of capacity in the pipeline.

Much of this growth and pipeline, particularly in wind and solar, has been fuelled by a rush to secure the Green Tariff, which will be replaced by an auction-based regime from 2020.

Introduced in 2008, the Green Tariff provides highly attractive and guaranteed Euro-denominated rates until the end of 2029. Investors can still secure the Green Tariff provided that projects have obtained land use rights, a grid connection agreement, a construction permit and a power purchase agreement (PPA) in the new format by 31 December 2019.

Passing of Ukraine’s Auction Law for alternative energy sources in April 2019 follows a well-trodden path. Use of auctions to manage supply to a national grid has become commonplace in recent years.

According to research by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) the number of countries that have adopted renewable energy auctions increased from six in 2005 to more than 67 by early 2017, and continues to rise.

Although the auction regime will undoubtedly lower returns on investment, compared to those offered by the Green Tariff, any reductions should be manageable, subject to the capacity offered at each auction, as advances in technology continue to reduce generating costs.

We expect the investment climate for Ukrainian renewables to remain favourable. Indeed, the government’s 2035 energy mix target will require significant, and sustained investment in new renewable capacity, storage and transmission networks.

Overall, the outlook for the renewables sector in Ukraine looks bright. Development of the sector has been rapid in recent years, and will continue in the years ahead, although investors should carefully assess the impact of the new auction regime.

 

Posted in Climate Change, PV, Renewables, Solar PV, Waste To Energy, Wind | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

Yingli in talks with creditors over break up

Chinese solar panel manufacturer Yingli this morning revealed it is talks with its lenders about a potential takeover of its chief Chinese business units.

Yingli Green Energy Holding Company Limited today revealed on its Yingli Solar website that the extent of its debts means its lenders may take control of the parent company’s Chinese subsidiaries or those units may instead be acquired by “strategic investors”.

pv magazine has been aware of rumors the major solar manufacturer could be acquired by the state-owned China Development Bank since the SNEC trade show in March but had been unable to substantiate the lead.

Today’s announcement was light on detail and did not identify monies owed, creditors or potential state-backed white knight investors. The statement did outline, however: “The company understands that various parties including relevant governmental agencies are making concerted efforts to promote the debt restructuring of the company’s major PRC [People’s Republic of China] subsidiaries.”

Yingli’s 2018 annual report, published in May, outlined the extent of the company’s financial distress and acknowledged the manufacturer faced being broken up to satisfy creditors.

Debt mountain

A Form 20-F filing lodged with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission revealed Yingli’s Baoding Tianwei subsidiary had overdue medium-term notes worth RMB4.45 billion ($628 million). According to the filing, parent company Yingli Green Energy Holding had a capital deficit of RMB11.9 billion at that point, overdue short-term borrowings of RMB4.77 billion, had been unable to roll over RMB2.39 billion of debts due to fall in April and May and had another RMB8 billion due by May 2020.

On top of that, three creditors had secured court victories relating to a total RMB468.4 million owed them with a further RMB110 million being contested in the courts and the company had just received a claim for a further RMB106 million.

The business was de-listed from the New York Stock Exchange in July 2018.

Today’s announcement did not name the Chinese subsidiaries which may pass to new ownership but known mainland units of the Baoding-based manufacturer include: Baoding Tianwei Yingli New Energy Resources Co Ltd; Tibet Keguang Industries and Trading Co Ltd; Lixian Yingli New Energy Resources Co Ltd; Tibet Tianwei Yingli New Energy Resources Co Ltd; Jiangsu Yingli New Energy Co Ltd; Chengdu Yingli New Energy Resources Co Ltd; Baoding Zhongtai New Energy Resources Co Ltd; Xinjiang Yingli New Energy Resources Co Ltd; Yingli Energy (Beijing) Co Ltd; Tianjin Yingli New Energy Resources Co Ltd; and Yingli Green Energy Hong Kong Trading Limited.

Source: PV Mag

Posted in Cells & Modules, China, Manufacturing, PV, Renewables, Solar | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment