The European Union (EU) – India Clean Energy and Climate Partnership1 (CECP) was agreed at the EU-India Summit on 30th March 2016. The aim of this partnership is to reinforce cooperation on clean energy and implementation of the Paris Agreement by strengthening joint activities for deployment of climate friendly energy sources in the areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy, smart grids, storage, sustainable finance, and climate mitigation and adaptation between the EU and India. The building sector is an important sector for the EU-India cooperation in the area of the green energy transformation. The energy consumption has been increasing every year owing to the rapid urbanization, with the building sector being one of the major contributors. India is witnessing one of the fastest construction growths worldwide. It is estimated that commercial floor area in India will grow by 2.5-3 times in next 2 decades. Whereas, by 2030, residential real estate has the potential to almost double from the current stock of 1.5 million units in key cities of the country3 Also, according to the United Nation’s data, India alone is expected to account for 17% of the global growth in urban population between 2018 and 2050, adding 416 million urban dwellers. The commercial building sector has been growing at a rate of 10-11%, much faster than the average electricity growth in the economy. For commercial buildings, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting system constitutes close to 55% and 25%, respectively of the total electricity consumed in buildings.
What is SRI?
Smart technologies in buildings comprise of a cost-effective measure to increase energy performance, create healthier and liveable buildings, and enable buildings to integrate into future energy systems characterised by a large share of renewable energy sources. Integration of smart technologies in buildings, offers advantages of optimized energy use and storage, automatic diagnosis and maintenance prediction and improved comfort for occupants via automation. The Smart Readiness Indicator (SRI) aims at making the added value of building smartness more tangible for building users, owners, tenants, and smart service providers. The indicator is intended to raise awareness about the benefits of smart technologies and ICT in buildings, likely to result in an acceleration of investments in smart building technologies and support of the uptake of technology innovation in the building sector. The indicator can also improve policy linkages between energy, buildings, and other policy segments, and thereby contribute to the integration of the buildings sector into future energy systems and markets.
What is smartness? – Smartness of a building refers to the ability of a building or its systems to sense, infer, communicate, and actively respond in a well efficient manner to the ever-changing conditions in relation to the operation of technical building systems or the external environmental and to the demands
from the building occupants.
For building occupants and owners and for investors for all new and existing buildings, SRI will provide an overview of services in a building and how they can contribute to the smart readiness of that building.
EU methodology in detail
The EU adopted the following tasks in order to arrive at outcomes which includes setting up a Smart Readiness Indicator for buildings and related impact assessment, which formed part of the 1st technical study as explained in the introduction above.
Penetration of smart technologies in India
As discussed in the methodology, an analysis of the penetration of smart technologies is conducted, which includes the identification of technologies which are established, and which have the most potential to be established in the next 2-5 years, in the Indian context via a survey. The results of the survey are analysed and are presented in the sections below according to specific domains. Also, each functionality level of smart services is depicted as per the energy savings potential under each domain, which is based on the study conducted by the EU.
Policy framework and its integration with SRI
This chapter aims at assessing the relevant policies/ codes and rating systems in India, and their impact on the uptake of smart technologies. In addition to the above, other initiatives by the Government of India have been looked into to assess the possibility of integration of smart technologies and the possible link with the establishment of SRI in India.
Indian policy framework
India has set a target to reduce the energy intensity by 33-35% by 2030 and energy efficiency will play a significant role in meeting India’s objectives. India’s energy intensity (at 2011-12 prices) decreased from 0.274 Mega Joules per rupee in 2011-12 to 0.233 Mega Joules in 2017-1810. This decline can be explained by the energy efficiency programs and policies developed and implemented by national bodies such as the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL) and their state-level counterparts, as well as the growing share of the services sector in the Indian economy. As for the smart technologies, various strategies have been instrumental in the rollout of smart technologies as it can deliver substantial reductions in energy consumption. Smart technologies are increasingly becoming a part of Green Building rating systems as showcased in Table 33. Smart systems and technologies allow for greater monitoring and control of various systems related to lighting, HVAC and other parameters in a building, which is based on occupancy patterns and building’s usage. The following table outlines the requirements of smart technologies with accepted Green Building rating systems & codes in India.
In 2018, the BEE formulated the Strategic Plan for Energy Efficiency in India, titled UNlocking NATional Energy Efficiency Potential (UNNATEE). Based on a BAU scenario, the plan estimated a total energy efficiency potential of 94 MTOE by 2031, from different demand sectors including buildings, domestic, industries, municipal, transport, agriculture, etc. This energy efficiency potential would be equivalent to a market size of over INR 9.7 lakh crores by 2031.11 Buildings (commercial and residential) present as high as one-third of India’s electricity demand. In the backdrop of increasing urbanization and increased emphasis in cooling demand, the share is expected to rise higher in coming years.
Technology provider perspective
The survey results indicate that at present there is already a significant uptake of some smart technologies by frontrunners in the Indian building sector. The following table summarises the smart services under each domain which have the most impact potential with respect to energy savings based on the study conducted by the EU and services which are available in India as per the survey conducted. The summary indicates that most of the services which have the most energy efficiency savings potential are present in the Indian market.
Case study of reference buildings
Case study 1 – Residential16
This section applies the streamlined methodology to a Single-Family House case study and reports the outcomes in terms of the scores attained. For this example, a case study is examined of a hypothetical semi-smart single-family house. This house is essentially the same as the High-Performance single-family house in the Ecofys/WSE technical building systems study (Ecofys & WSE, 2017). The building is a partly refurbished, i.e., the insulation of roofs and walls have been improved to a moderate level, and modern double-glazed windows have been installed. Heating is provided by a gas boiler with radiators, which is the case for more than 40% of the residential space heating consumption of the EU28 building stock (with a heating system exchange rate of about 3.6% per year at EU level, gas fired heating systems will still remain the norm in the near future). Domestic hot water is provided by the heating system without a circulation system. The building has no space cooling and uses natural ventilation.
The house is smart in that it has quite sophisticated but perfectly mainstream and cost-effective energy savings controls of its technical building systems including: − heat demand control for heat emitters via TRVs and for the system via weather compensation and optimum stop/start − heat production control includes variable temperature control depending on the load (depending on supply water temperature set point) − monitoring & control of HVAC systems can be done by remote control (via smart phone) of the heating system − reporting information regarding current and historical energy consumption − basic (dumb) EV charging capabilities. On the other hand, it is not so smart because it has no on-site distributed generation (and hence no smart control of this), no DSM capability including no EV-related grid balancing capability, and no-fault detection capability. As it has no cooling, hot water storage, controlled ventilation or blinds these domains are excluded.
By contrast the eight impact criteria are all weighted equally. In other words, scoring under any of Energy savings on site, Flexibility for the grid and storage, Self-generation, Comfort, Convenience, Health and well-being, Maintenance & fault prediction, or Information to occupants all counts equally to the final SRI score. Again, these could be weighted differently to give more prominence to some impacts than others.
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