FLOATING SOLAR HANDBOOK FOR PRACTITIONERS – 2019, Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS) at the National University of Singapore (NUS)

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 

Site identification 1

Energy yield analysis 3
Engineering design 3
Financial and legal considerations 3 Environmental and social considerations Procurement and construction 4

Testing and commissioning Operations and maintenance Conclusions and next steps

  1. 1  INTRODUCTION 11
    1. 1.1  Why is this handbook needed? 11
    2. 1.2  Market trends for floating solar 11
    3. 1.3  Key phases of a floating solar project
  2. 2  SITE IDENTIFICATION 17

2.1 Introduction 17

  1. 2.2  Solar irradiance and climate conditions 18
  2. 2.3  Bathymetry and water body characteristics 19
  3. 2.4  Soil investigations and water analysis 21
  4. 2.5  Shading, soiling, and environmental considerations 22
  5. 2.6  Accessibility, grid infrastructure, and power availability 22
  6. 2.7  Other site conditions 23
  7. 2.8  Summary for selecting a water body 23

3 ENERGY YIELD ANALYSIS 27

  1. 3.1  Introduction 27
  2. 3.2  Solar resource and irradiance in the plane of solar modules 27
  3. 3.3  Shading losses 28
  4. 3.4  Soiling 29
  5. 3.5  Temperature-dependent losses 29
  6. 3.6  Water surface albedo 30
  7. 3.7  Mismatch losses 30
  8. 3.8  Cabling losses 32
  9. 3.9  Efficiency losses of the inverter 32
  10. 3.10  Long-term degradation rates 32

CONTENTS • iii

iv •

FLOATING SOLAR HANDBOOK FOR PRACTITIONERS

  1. 4  ENGINEERING DESIGN 35
    1. 4.1  Introduction 35
    2. 4.2  Floating structures and platforms 35
    3. 4.3  Anchoring and mooring systems 39
    4. 4.4  PV modules 45
    5. 4.5  Cable management on water 49
    6. 4.6  Electrical safety 49
    7. 4.7  Checklists for plant design 53
  2. 5  FINANCIAL AND LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS 57
    1. 5.1  Overview 57
    2. 5.2  Risk analysis 57
    3. 5.3  Economic and financial analysis 61
    4. 5.4  Licenses, permits, and authorizations 62
    5. 5.5  Country case studies 64
    6. 5.6  Conclusion 68
  3. 6  ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS 73
    1. 6.1  Overview, scope, and methodology 73
    2. 6.2  Managing effects specific to floating solar photovoltaic systems 74
    3. 6.3  Permitting, mitigation measures, performance indicators, and monitoring 86
  4. 7  PROCUREMENT AND CONSTRUCTION 93 7.1 Overview 93
    1. 7.2  Managing procurement activities 93
    2. 7.3  Managing construction activities 95
    3. 7.4  Checklist for procurement and construction 102
  5. 8  FIELD TESTING AND COMMISSIONING 105
    1. 8.1  Overview 105
    2. 8.2  Solar PV modules and inverters 105
    3. 8.3  Floats and anchoring 105
    4. 8.4  Safety labelling 106
    5. 8.5  Surge/lightning protection 106
    6. 8.6  DC electrical system 107
    7. 8.7  AC electrical system 108
    8. 8.8  Acceptance tests 109
  6. 9  OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE 113
    1. 9.1  Overview 113
    2. 9.2  O&M approach and activities 113
    3. 9.3  Warranties and performance guarantees 129
    4. 9.4  Operations and maintenance checklist 131

ANNEXES 133

  1. Floating PV module failure modes and testing recommendations 133
  2. Costs of floating solar 139
  3. Nonexhaustive list of FPV system suppliers as of December 2018 143

About Ritesh Pothan

Ritesh Pothan, is an accomplished speaker and visionary in the Solar Energy space in India. Ritesh is from an Engineering Background with a Master’s Degree in Technology and had spent more than a decade as the Infrastructure Head for a public limited company with the last 9 years dedicated to Solar and Renewable Energy. He also runs the 2 largest India focused renewable energy groups on LinkedIn - Solar - India and Renewables - India
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