The history of human evolution rests on the availability and use of energy. From the transformation from the early use of fire and animal power that improved lives, to the present world with use of electricity and cleaner sustainable fuels for a multitude of purposes – energy has been the enabler of development. Energy presents a fundamental need ranging from, but not limited to, the essential services of cooking, heating, cooling, lighting, mobility, and operation of appliances, to information and communications technology, and machines in every sector of every country. The lack of access to reliable and clean energy supplies is now considered as a major barrier to improving human well- being around the globe.
The United Nations Statistical Commission, at its forty second session (22–25 February 2011), adopted IRES as a statistical standard and encouraged its implementation in all countries. IRES provide a comprehensive methodological framework for the collection, compilation and dissemination of energy statistics in all countries irrespective of the level of development of their statistical system. In particular, IRES provides of a set of internationally agreed recommendations covering all aspects of the statistical production process, from the institutional and legal framework, basic concepts, definitions and classifications to data sources, data compilation strategies, energy balances, data quality issues and statistical dissemination.
In the context of basic energy statistics and energy balances, the term “energy flow” refers to the production, import, export, bunkering, stock changes, transformation, energy use by energy industries, losses during the transformation, and final consumption of energy products within the territory of reference for which these statistics are compiled. This territory generally corresponds to the national territory; however, it can also refer to an administrative region at the sub-national level or even to a group of countries. The term “rest of the world” is used here to denote all areas/territories outside the reference territory. The broad sectoral diagram representation of Energy Flow in an economy is presented below.
The present publication, Energy Statistics India 2021, is fully compliant with the IRES 2011 and follows the practices prescribed therein.
Reserves and Potential for Generation
Highlights India has rich deposits of coal in the world. Total estimated reserves of coal in 2020 were 344.02 billion tonnes, an addition of 17.53 billion tonnes over the 2019 in corresponding period. In terms of percentage, there has been a growth of 5.37% in the total estimated coal reserves during the year 2020 over 2019 (Table 1.1.).The top three states with highest coal reserves in India are Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, which account for approximately 70% of the total coal reserves in the country. Out of the total reserves in the country, proven reserves i.e. those available for extraction in terms of i.e. economically viability, feasibility study and geologically exploration level, account for almost 47% of the total as depicted below in Fig 1.1.
- The estimated total reserves of lignite in 2020 were 46.02 billion tonnes against 45.76 billion tonnes in 2019. (Table 1.1(A)). The highest reserves of lignite are found in the state of Tamil Nadu.
- Out of the total reserves in the country, proven reserves account for almost only 15% of the total as depicted below in Fig 1.2
The estimated reserves of crude oil in India in 2020 stood at 603.37 million tonnes against 618.95 million tonnes in the previous year. Geographical distribution of Crude oil indicates that the maximum reserves are in the Western Offshore (39%) followed by Assam (26%)
The estimated reserves of Natural Gas in the year 2020 were at 1371.89 Billion Cubic Metres. The maximum reserves of Natural Gas are in the Eastern Offshore (41%) followed by Western offshore (23.66%).
There is a high potential for generation of renewable energy from various sources- wind, solar, biomass, small hydro and cogeneration bagasse in India. The total potential for renewable power generation in the country as on 31.03.2020 is estimated at 1,097,465 MW This includes solar power potential of 748990 MW (68.25%), wind power potential of 302251 MW (27.54%) at 100m hub height, SHP (small-hydro power) potential of 21134 MW (1.93%), Biomass power of 17,536 MW (1.60%), 5000 MW (0.46%) from bagasse- based cogeneration in sugar mills and 2554 MW (0.23%) from waste to energy.
The geographic distribution of the estimated potential of renewable power as on 31.03.2020 shows that Rajasthan has the highest share of about 15% (162223 MW). This is followed by Gujarat with 11% share 122086 MW). Both Maharashtra and Jammu & Kashmir come next with a 10% share (113925MW and 112800 MW respectively), mainly on account of solar power. However, amongst these, share of Wind Power is the highest in Gujarat.
Installed Capacity and Capacity Utilization
Total installed capacity of coal washeries in India is 143.44 Million Tonne per year (MTY) as on 31.03.2020 (P). This comprises of 29.84 MTY in coking and 113.60 MTY in Non Coking Coal Washeries (Table 2.1).
India’s Energy mix has been seeing a shift from more conventional resources of energy to renewable sources. This is well captured by the fact that while the installed capacity of renewable sources of electricity generation excluding hydro from utilities grew at 12% in the previous year (2020 over 2019), that of thermal sources grew only at 1.91%.
Installed Capacity and Utilization of Refineries of Crude Oil
Production of Energy Resources
Highlights Coal production in the country during the year 2019-20(P) was 730.87 million tonne as compared to 728.72 million tonnes during 2018-19, growing at the rate of 0.30%. The overall trend of production in the last ten years i.e. 2010-11 to 2019-20 has shown a steady increase with a CAGR of 3.58%(Table 3.1).
To allow comparison among and aggregation of production by different sources of energy, production has been converted in terms of energy units, Petajoules. It may be seen that the total production of energy resources increased from 15305.45 petajoules during 2018-19 to 15311 petajoules during 2019-20(P), showing an increase of 0.04%(Table 3.2).
In the year 2018-19, the production of Petroleum Products in the country was 262.36 MT as against 262.94 MT during 2019-20(P), an increase of 0.22%. In the total production of Petroleum Products during 2019-20(P), High Speed Diesel Oil accounted for the maximum share (42.13%), followed by Motor Gasoline (14.70%).
The year-wise growth of domestic production of Petroleum Products for different categories of distillates has seen an increasing trend over the years 2010-11 to 2019-20(P) with middle and light distillates moving more rapidly than heavy ends over the same period.
Foreign Trade & Prices of Energy Resources
Highlights There has been an increasing trend in the net import of coal in the recent years. Over the last ten years, Net Import of coal steadily increased from 67.04 MTs in 2010-11 to 210.87 MTs in 2014-15. This was followed by a marginal decline in the succeeding 2 years but again started increasing though the increase in 2019-20(P) over 2018-19 was only 5% as compared to 13% in 2018-19 over 2017-18. (Table 4.1).
Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Petroleum Products varied for different products ranging from a growth rate year on year of 13.39%(Kerosene) to (-) 3.17%(Petrol). Index was highest for kerosene (172.8) (Table 4.2).
The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) among non-petroleum products showed a positive growth rate of 7.32% (lignite) followed by 3.91% (Coking Coal) and 2.01% (Electricity).
Availability of Energy Resources
Highlights Over the previous year, 2018-19, in comparison to the current year, 2019-20(P), the total availability of energy resources has seen a growth in Coal and Natural Gas, whereas, it has decreased for Lignite and Crude Oil. While Coal and Natural Gas showed a growth of 4.58% and 5.51% in this period, that for Lignite and Crude oil shrunk by (-) 1.87% and (-) 0.60% respectively (Table 5.1).
There has been a marginal change of -0.60% in the availability of crude oil in the country over the previous year. The availability of Crude Oil decreased from 260.70 MT in 2018-19 to 259.12 MT during 2019-20(P). This is attributed to marginal decrease in production of domestic crude oil (Table 5.3).
Electricity available for supply increased from 8,11,635 Gwh in 2010-11 to 13,11,176 Gwh in 2019-20(P), thus recording a CAGR of 5.47% during this period. The availability of electricity increased at 0.27% in 2019-20(P) over its value in previous year.
Consumption of Energy Resources
Highlights The total consumption of energy resources in 2019-20(P) has increased as compared to 2018-19 for Natural Gas (5.51%) and Electricity from Hydro, Nuclear and other renewable sources from utilities (6.74%) (Table 6.1).
India is one of the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Though there is a small decline of 2.66% in 2019-20 over 2018-19, there has been an upward trend in the consumption of coal in the country during the period 2010-11 to 2018-19. CAGR is 5.28% from 2010-11 to 2019-20(P).
The total consumption of energy has decreased from 32639 PJ in 2018-19 to 32514 PJ in 2019-20(P), a decrease of 125 PJ. This may be attributed to decrease in consumption noticed in three resources of energy – coal, lignite and crude oil. However, the consumption of Natural Gas and Electricity (from Hydro, Nuclear and other renewable sources from utilities) increased by 129 PJ and 293 PJ respectively over the previous year.
Electricity Sector remains the biggest consumer of Raw Coal and Lignite in India with this sector consuming as much as 64.86% of the total consumption of coal and 85.96% of total consumption of lignite in India in 2019-20(P). High speed diesel oil accounted for 34.80 % of total consumption of all types of petroleum products including losses in 2019-20(P). This was followed by Petrol (12.60%), LPG (11.1%), Pet Coke (9.10%)
The consumption of major petroleum products has seen an upward trend from 2010-11 to 2019-20(P) with LPG consumption increasing at a CAGR of 6.99% followed by Petrol (8.66%).
The maximum use of Natural Gas is in fertilizers industry (25.12%) followed by power generation (17.19%). Industry wise off-take of natural gas shows that while 55.08% of natural gas has been used for Energy purposes, 32.91% is used for Non-energy purposes.
The estimated electricity consumption increased from 6,94,392 GWh during 2010-11 to 12,91,494 GWh during 2019-20(P), showing a CAGR of 6.74%. Of the total consumption of electricity in 2019-20(P), industry sector accounted for the largest share (42.69%), followed by domestic (24.01%), agriculture (17.67%) and commercial sectors (8.04%).
Sustainability and Energy
Highlights One of the Targets identified by the Sustainable Development Goals focuses on making affordable, reliable and modern energy accessible to all people universally. To ensure the same, India has been focusing on availability of electricity to all citizens of the country.State-wise number of villages electrified as on 31.03.2020 (P) has reached 100% coverage (relative to 2011 census figures for total number of villages in the country). (Table 8.1).
Similarly, Per-capita Energy Consumption increased from 19,669 Mega joules in 2011-12 to 23,889 Mega joules in 2019-20(P).
Further, India’s Total Emissions from the Energy Sector have increased from 1651928 GgCO2 Equivalent in 2011 to 2129428 GgCO2 Equivalent in 2016 as per the latest estimates by MoEFCC, February 2021. The major sector contributing to total emissions remains Energy Industries with its share increasing marginally from 55.95% in 2011 to 56.66 in 2016.
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